When a person reflect, organize your ideas and reach a conclusion, you will have developed a reasoning . According to the type of mental process that is carried out, it is possible to differentiate between different kinds of reasoning.
Inductive , meanwhile, is what is linked to the induction (the process that leads to obtaining a general conclusion from specific or particular premises).
A inductive reasoning , therefore, is to consider various individual experiences to extract from them a beginning broader and general . It is important to keep in mind that, although it is based on true premises, the conclusion can be false. That an inductive reasoning derives from a true conclusion is only a probability, the degree of which varies according to the number of premises considered and their characteristics.
An example of inductive reasoning is as follows: "Lionel Messi is Argentine and plays soccer / Sergio Agüero is Argentine and plays soccer / Gonzalo Higuaín is Argentine and plays soccer / All Argentines play soccer". As you can see, inductive reasoning is valid, but its conclusion is false (not all Argentines play soccer ).
In other cases, inductive reasoning may lead to a conclusion. true : "Laura threw herself into the sea and came out wet from the water / Carlos threw herself into the sea and came out wet from the water / Marcela threw herself into the sea and came out wet from the water / All the people who throw themselves into the sea get wet from the water".
At first glance, it is correct to state that inductive reasoning can be considered as opposed to deductive, in that the latter part of a general premise to arrive at a particular conclusion. Similarly, in neither case the validity of the premises determines the value Really from the conclusion.
This method of philosophy modern originated in the "Novum Organum", the most important work of Francis Bacon (see image), a 16th-century British philosopher, who believed that science was a technique that he offered to the human being the power to dominate nature . This book, which was published in the year 1620, shortly before his death, is also known as "Indications related to the interpretation of nature".
In "Novum Organum"Francis Bacon seeks to systematically show how important the inductive argument is to form scientific knowledge, thus opposing deductivism, which prevailed in its time. To do this, it begins by explaining the concept of induction based on the thought of Aristotle, according to who was "a transit that takes us from the individual to the universal".
Bacon delves into that definition, explaining that the goal is to achieve the axioms on which the correct reasoning is based starting from the particular events and the senses , rising progressively and continuously to finally find the most general principles , something that, he adds, had not yet been tested, even if it was the right way.
Inductive reasoning is the method that Bacon believed useful for discovering the arts and sciences, and for that he assured that it is necessary to analyze the nature , eliminating and excluding as appropriate, to find, after having found a sufficient amount of negative facts, the affirmative.
The three elements of Bacon's method of applying inductive reasoning are the following: the presence table , where the facts in which the phenomenon , trying to show a great variety to maximize the vision of the study; the absence table , where those events are collected in which the phenomenon is not present; the table of degrees , which shows the facts in which the phenomenon appears, with different intensities.