It is known as hydrocarbon to the organic type compound that arises by combining atoms of hydrogen with others from carbon . According to those skilled in the art, in this compound the molecular form is based on atoms of carbon bonded with hydrogen atoms. These chains of carbon atoms can be open or closed and linear or branched .
When a hydrocarbon is extracted in a liquid state from a geological formation, it is called Petroleum. On the other hand, the naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas is called natural gas .
The exploitation of oil and natural gas represents a very important industry for the economy since they allow to obtain fossil fuels and produce lubricants, plastics and other products.
It is also important to highlight that hydrocarbons can cause serious poisoning, with severe disorders for breathing . When a person is poisoned with a hydrocarbon, an intubation is performed and mechanical ventilation is performed.
Since hydrocarbons are included in the group of type solvents organic (liquids that can give off steam) it is very common for poisonings to occur through the inhalation route, but they can also take place through ingestion or contact with the skin. In everyday life, many of the consumer products for the home represent potential sources of toxicity; Some examples are gas cylinders, kerosene and aniline.
It should be noted that it is possible to classify hydrocarbons as aliphatic or aromatic . The Aliphatic hydrocarbons , for their part, can be divided into alkanes , alkenes and alkynes according to the kinds of junctions that bind carbon atoms.
Aliphatic hydrocarbons, according to the theory, are those that lack aromatic ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated . The saturated are the alkanes (group in which all carbons have two pairs of simple bonds), while unsaturated (also known by the name of unsaturated ) are the alkenes (which, at least, have a double bond) and alkynes (with triple links).
The aromatic hydrocarbons , meanwhile, are the compounds that have at least a cyclic structure and that comply with what is known as the Hückel's rule .
With Hückel's rule it is possible to study the relationship which takes place between aromaticity and the amount of electrons that are passed from one atom to another when the sp2 orbitals of a cyclic and flat organic type molecule that alternate single and double bonds overlap. When the number of these electrons is 4 n + 2 the molecule is said to be aromatic, while for 4 n, antiaromatic. An aromatic compound has a very different stability to that of an antiaromatic or a non-aromatic one, so in order to anticipate this property this rule is of vital utility.
With respect to aromatics, the benzene It is the most common type of hydrocarbon. It is a molecule in which it is very simple to observe its energy level, according to the presence or absence of nodes. Through Hückel's rule, it is possible to take an amount n of atoms orbitals and relate them, based on the principle that the result of said analysis is equivalent to the same amount of orbitals but with different energy states.
After applying this relationship, in cases where you have 4 n electrons, these reach a level of Energy relatively higher while when they meet 4 n + 2, formula that was previously awarded to aromatic molecules, electrons go to a considerably lower state and achieve greater stability.