The ossification is the process and the result of ossifying , a verb that refers to the process that leads an organic element to become a bone or to get an appearance similar to him.
Through ossification, therefore, a new component can be created osseous . The osteoblasts They are responsible for developing this procedure, which can be accomplished in various ways.
It is believed that the bones arose from the evolution of certain cartilage , which began as a reserve of calcium and other minerals and eventually evolved to protect organs . From bone evolution, vertebrates were able to adapt to the earth's surface and move in a different way.
One of the known types of ossification is called endochondral , and it is a development that consists in the progressive replacement of hyaline cartilage with bone tissue, in a process that takes place from the inside out. When development takes place the other way around (that is, from the outside inwards), one speaks of pericondral ossification.
The intramembrane ossification , on the other hand, takes place inside a membrane which is part of the connective tissue. Cartilages, therefore, are not involved in this kind of ossification. When a person suffers a fracture, intramembrane ossification is usually the most common mechanism to reverse the lesion and get the individual to heal.
The heterotopic ossification Finally, it is specified when a bone is formed in a place in the body that should not have such structures.
Also known as progressive ossifying fibrodysplasia , muscle ossification is a disease Hereditary type characterized by progressive ossification of tendons, skeletal muscles, ligaments and fasciae. In other words, some tissues of our body are transformed into bone. According to certain studies, there are currently more than 3000 cases worldwide.
Muscle ossification was first described in 1969, although the pathological picture was not measured until 1992. This disease originates from a defective gene that transmits one or both parents to their offspring. The cause lies in the activation of the mutated ACVR1 gene, after which it is formed tissue Bone or cartilaginous in the regions where it is found.
There are infrequent but consistent references in the medical literature of patients who presented symptom compatible with those of muscle ossification since the 19th century; in many writings people are talked about they hardened like stones, so it is not difficult to think that it was this particular disease.
In recent times, one of the most outstanding cases was that of the unfortunate Harry Raymond Eastlack Jr., an American born in Philadelphia in 1933. When he was ten years old, muscular ossification began to transform his body into a destructive process that It lasted about three decades. Within a few days of turning 40, Harry could only control the movement of his lips, since the rest of his body had solidified. A pneumonia ended his lifetime in November 1973.
Despite the suffering Harry had to endure during his short life, before he died he made clear his willingness to donate his body to medicine, so that scientists could study it and seek a cure for this disease so difficult to understand. Since then, his skeleton is preserved in the Museum Mütter of the Philadelphia School of Medicine, and has been a considerable source of findings for the study of this disorder.