During the second part of century XVIII and beginnings of XIX century , a period that remained in history with the name of industrial Revolution . It was a time of great transformations in the technological, economic, social and cultural field, which had its epicenter in England .
With the industrial revolution, the industry and manufacturing activities replaced manual labor. This meant the mechanization of multiple production processes and the elimination of numerous positions of job , since these tasks began to be performed by machines.
The industrial revolution was composed of two distinct stages: the first was between the years 1750 and 1840, and the second between 1880 and 1914. Both can be analyzed through specific changes that took place in societies. In principle, there was a demographic transformation , with the transfer of the rural population to cities and international migrations. Then a great economic change , with serial production and the emergence of large Business , which helped to strengthen the capitalism .
First industrial revolution
The first stage of this change originated in the United Kingdom; however it was a process that triggered changes in all countries and was based on the economic liberalism. The fundamental reason why it began in this country, possibly is that it was an open society and prepared for the changes, and that it had large iron deposits, thanks to which it was possible to develop the necessary machinery to start up the industry.
The first step of the industrial revolution was the mechanization of textile activities and industrialization in iron production. The rise of railway and the creation of steam engines they were other decisive changes, since they facilitated the transport of merchandise and increased the productive capacity.
Second industrial revolution
The second stage was a consequence of the first and had as protagonists countries such as France, Belgium, Russia, Germany and the United States. It was characterized by laying the foundations even more economic that would govern the course of societies from the nineteenth century onwards.
This period consolidated capitalism as the dominant ideology of the commercial relations in the world and brought with it important technological advances that would be reflected in more sophisticated machinery for production, improvements in the means of transport and fundamentally increasing the comforts of the citizens in their daily development.
It is important to highlight that in both periods they happened social transformations such as the birth of proletariat , that is, industrial workers, and the environmental degradation for the uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources.
Parallel to the appearance of the proletariat, another social group was formed, identified by the name of industrial bourgeoisie , which included the big businessmen and those who stayed with the power and the economic benefits derived from this historical process.
Three strengths of the industrial revolution can be mentioned:
* The agricultural revolution: thanks to the investment that certain owners made in modern techniques of working the soil and in the modernization of cropping systems, which brought about a progressive increase in agricultural production. It should be noted that during this period the use of fertilizers in agriculture was created and implemented;
* Development of commercial capital: rules were established to systematize work, the relationship between employers and workers became strictly labor and had the sole objective of obtaining benefits from both parties. The incorporation of machinery at work allowed not only to improve the conditions of work but also to improve communication and transport in cities;
* Demographic-social changes: given the changes caused by the new means of transport and communication, many people concentrated in the city to work in the factories; the rest focused on the agricultural areas that had implemented the changes of which we already speak. In turn, thanks to the improvements in agricultural production and the abundance of food, the health of citizens improved greatly, thus allowing population growth.